Clickjacking Template

Executive Summary:

This report addresses a significant security vulnerability known as Clickjacking within our application. Clickjacking occurs when an attacker overlays malicious content on top of legitimate web pages, tricking users into clicking on hidden or disguised elements, which can lead to unintended actions, such as performing transactions, revealing sensitive information, or executing malicious scripts. This report aims to detail the vulnerability, its potential impact on our systems and users, and actionable recommendations for mitigation.

Description of the Vulnerability:

Clickjacking exploits the ability to embed an iframe or other HTML element in a web page to overlay it with deceptive content, making it appear as part of the legitimate page. By manipulating the visual presentation and transparency of the overlaid content, attackers can trick users into interacting with hidden elements, leading to unintended actions or disclosures. Clickjacking can be used to perform various attacks, including click fraud, social engineering, or unauthorized actions on behalf of the user.


The impact of Clickjacking can range from relatively benign actions, such as unintentional likes or shares on social media platforms, to more severe consequences, such as unauthorized financial transactions, account takeovers, or data theft. By deceiving users into clicking on hidden or disguised elements, attackers can exploit Clickjacking to perform actions without the user's consent or knowledge, potentially leading to financial loss, reputational damage, or legal consequences.


The likelihood of exploitation depends on various factors, including the visibility of attack surfaces, the effectiveness of mitigating controls, and the awareness of potential attackers. However, given the ease of implementing Clickjacking attacks and the potential impact on user interactions, the risk associated with this vulnerability is significant if not properly mitigated.

Steps to Reproduce:

  1. Identify web pages or functionalities within the application where user interactions, such as clicks or keystrokes, trigger sensitive actions or disclosures.
  2. Create a malicious web page containing an iframe or other HTML element overlaying the target web page with deceptive content.
  3. Trick users into interacting with the hidden or disguised elements by enticing them to click on seemingly innocuous areas of the page.
  4. Monitor user interactions and observe if unintended actions or disclosures occur as a result of the Clickjacking attack.

Recommendations for Developers:

  1. Implement X-Frame-Options Header: Set the X-Frame-Options header to deny or restrict the embedding of web pages in iframes, preventing Clickjacking attacks by disallowing the rendering of the application in a frame.
  2. Use Content Security Policy (CSP): Implement Content Security Policy (CSP) directives to control the sources from which resources can be loaded, mitigating the risk of Clickjacking by restricting the inclusion of content from untrusted domains.


Addressing the Clickjacking vulnerability is critical to protecting user interactions, preventing unauthorized actions, and maintaining the integrity and trustworthiness of our application. By implementing security headers such as X-Frame-Options and Content Security Policy (CSP), we can mitigate the risks associated with Clickjacking attacks and enhance the overall security posture of our systems.