Frame Injection

Executive Summary:

This report addresses a significant security vulnerability known as Frame Injection within our application. Frame Injection, also referred to as Clickjacking, occurs when attackers embed our web pages within iframes on malicious websites, deceiving users into interacting with our content unintentionally. This report aims to detail the vulnerability, its potential impact on our systems and users, and actionable recommendations for mitigation.

Description of the Vulnerability:

Frame Injection vulnerabilities arise when our web pages can be embedded within iframes on external websites without appropriate safeguards. Attackers exploit this vulnerability by crafting malicious web pages that load our content within iframes, typically overlaying it with deceptive elements to trick users into performing unintended actions, such as clicking on disguised buttons or links. This technique allows attackers to hijack user interactions and potentially execute malicious actions on our behalf.


The impact of Frame Injection vulnerabilities can be significant, leading to various security risks such as phishing attacks, data theft, or unauthorized actions performed by users inadvertently. Attackers can exploit Frame Injection to deceive users into interacting with our content in unintended ways, potentially leading to financial loss, reputational damage, or compromise of sensitive information.


The likelihood of exploitation depends on various factors, including the visibility of our web pages, the effectiveness of browser security features, and the attacker's motivation. However, given the prevalence of Frame Injection attacks and their potential impact on user trust and security, the risk associated with this vulnerability is significant if not properly mitigated.

Steps to Reproduce:

  1. Identify web pages within our application that can be embedded within iframes on external websites.
  2. Craft a malicious webpage that loads our content within an iframe and overlays it with deceptive elements.
  3. Distribute the malicious webpage via email, social media, or other channels to potential victims.
  4. Encourage victims to visit the malicious webpage and observe if they interact with our content unintentionally.

Recommendations for Developers:

  1. Implement X-Frame-Options Header: Set the X-Frame-Options header to deny or restrict framing of our web pages by external websites, preventing Frame Injection attacks.
  2. Use Content Security Policy (CSP): Implement a Content Security Policy with frame-ancestors directive to control which domains can embed our content within iframes, further mitigating the risk of Frame Injection.


Addressing Frame Injection vulnerabilities is critical to protecting against phishing attacks and unauthorized actions performed by users inadvertently. By implementing X-Frame-Options header and Content Security Policy, we can mitigate the risks associated with Frame Injection and enhance the overall security posture of our systems.