Identification of Clickjacking Protection Misconfiguration

Identifying Clickjacking protection misconfigurations involves examining how Clickjacking protection mechanisms are implemented within web applications and ensuring that they are configured properly to mitigate Clickjacking attacks. Clickjacking, also known as UI redressing, is a technique used by attackers to trick users into clicking on unintended elements of a web page by overlaying them with transparent or opaque layers. Here's how you can identify Clickjacking protection misconfigurations:


  1. Reviewing X-Frame-Options Header: Examine if the X-Frame-Options header is present in the HTTP response headers. This header is used to control whether the browser should allow the rendering of a page in a frame or iframe.
  2. Analyzing X-Frame-Options Settings: Verify the settings of the X-Frame-Options header to ensure they are configured correctly. The header should have values such as DENY, SAMEORIGIN, or ALLOW-FROM followed by a trusted origin.
  3. Testing for Frame Embedding: Test if the application's pages can be embedded within frames or iframes on other domains. Attempt to embed pages using HTML iframe elements and observe whether the browser respects the X-Frame-Options header settings.
  4. Analyzing Frame-Busting Scripts: Review if the application uses frame-busting scripts to prevent Clickjacking. These scripts are JavaScript code that attempts to prevent a page from being framed by checking if it is the top-level window.
  5. Inspecting Content Security Policy (CSP): Check if the Content Security Policy (CSP) includes directives to prevent Clickjacking attacks, such as frame-ancestors directive. This directive restricts the domains that can embed the page in a frame or iframe.


  • Example 1: During testing, a penetration tester discovers that the X-Frame-Options header is missing from the application's HTTP responses. This exposes the application to Clickjacking attacks as its pages can be embedded in iframes on malicious websites.
  • Example 2: The tester finds that the application's X-Frame-Options header is set to ALLOW-FROM, allowing the application to be embedded in iframes on the domain. However, this setting is ineffective as Clickjacking protection because it should use the DENY or SAMEORIGIN setting for broader protection.


  1. Implement X-Frame-Options Header: Configure the X-Frame-Options header with the appropriate setting (DENY, SAMEORIGIN, or ALLOW-FROM) to control frame embedding behavior and prevent Clickjacking attacks.
  2. Use Frame-Busting Scripts: Implement frame-busting scripts to complement X-Frame-Options header and provide additional protection against Clickjacking attacks, especially in older browsers that do not support the X-Frame-Options header.
  3. Content Security Policy (CSP): Use Content Security Policy (CSP) directives, such as frame-ancestors, to restrict the domains that can embed the application's pages in frames or iframes.
  4. Regular Security Audits: Conduct regular security audits and vulnerability assessments to identify and address Clickjacking protection misconfigurations in web applications.
  5. Security Awareness Training: Educate developers about Clickjacking attacks and best practices for implementing proper Clickjacking protection mechanisms in web applications.

By identifying and mitigating Clickjacking protection misconfigurations, organizations can prevent attackers from exploiting these weaknesses to deceive users and compromise the security of their web applications.