Insecure Direct Object References (IDOR) Template

Executive Summary:

This report addresses a critical security vulnerability related to Insecure Direct Object References (IDOR) detected within our application. IDOR occurs when an application exposes internal object references, such as file paths, database records, or resource identifiers, without proper authorization checks, allowing attackers to manipulate these references to access unauthorized data or perform unauthorized actions. This report aims to outline the vulnerability, its potential impact on our systems and users, and actionable recommendations for mitigation.

Description of the Vulnerability:

Insecure Direct Object References (IDOR) vulnerabilities occur when an application fails to enforce proper access controls on sensitive objects or resources. Attackers can exploit these vulnerabilities by manipulating object references in requests to access unauthorized data or perform unauthorized actions. Common examples include accessing other users' data, viewing confidential documents, or modifying resource identifiers to access restricted functionalities.


The impact of Insecure Direct Object References (IDOR) vulnerabilities can be severe, leading to unauthorized access to sensitive data, data leakage, data tampering, or unauthorized privilege escalation. Attackers can exploit IDOR vulnerabilities to bypass access controls, view confidential information, or perform actions reserved for privileged users, potentially resulting in financial loss, reputational damage, or legal consequences.


The likelihood of exploitation depends on various factors, including the visibility of object references in requests, the effectiveness of access controls, and the value of the data or resources being accessed. However, given the prevalence of IDOR vulnerabilities in web applications and the ease of exploitation, the risk associated with this vulnerability is significant if not adequately mitigated.

Steps to Reproduce:

  1. Identify functionalities within the application that retrieve or manipulate sensitive data or resources based on user input or parameters.
  2. Intercept and analyze requests to these functionalities to identify object references, such as file paths, database IDs, or resource identifiers, being passed as parameters.
  3. Manipulate object references in requests to access unauthorized data or perform unauthorized actions, such as changing parameters to access other users' data or tampering with resource identifiers to bypass access controls.
  4. Submit the manipulated requests and observe the application's response to determine if unauthorized access or actions are allowed due to insufficient authorization checks.

Recommendations for Developers:

  1. Implement Proper Authorization Checks: Ensure that all access to sensitive data or resources is properly authorized and validated based on the user's privileges and permissions. Implement access control mechanisms to enforce the principle of least privilege and prevent unauthorized access or actions.
  2. Use Indirect References: Avoid exposing direct references to sensitive objects or resources in URLs, parameters, or other client-side inputs. Use indirect references or surrogate keys to access sensitive data or resources, and perform proper authorization checks before resolving indirect references.


Addressing the Insecure Direct Object References (IDOR) vulnerability is critical to protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our application's data and resources. By implementing proper authorization checks and using indirect references for sensitive objects or resources, we can mitigate the risks associated with IDOR vulnerabilities and enhance the overall security posture of our application.