Invalidated Redirects and Forwards Template

Executive Summary:

This report addresses a vulnerability related to Invalidated Redirects and Forwards detected within our application. Invalidated Redirects and Forwards occur when an application redirects or forwards users to untrusted destinations without proper validation, potentially leading to phishing attacks, malicious redirection, or unauthorized access to sensitive information. This report aims to highlight the vulnerability, its potential impact on our systems and users, and actionable recommendations for mitigation.

Description of the Vulnerability:

Invalidated Redirects and Forwards vulnerabilities arise when an application allows user-controlled input to dictate the destination of a redirect or forward operation without adequate validation. Attackers can exploit this vulnerability to trick users into visiting malicious websites, phishing pages, or unauthorized resources, thereby compromising user security and privacy.


Exploiting Invalidated Redirects and Forwards vulnerabilities can lead to various security risks, including phishing attacks, session hijacking, unauthorized access to sensitive information, or malware distribution. By manipulating redirect or forward URLs, attackers can deceive users and exploit their trust in the application, leading to potential financial loss, data theft, or reputational damage.


The likelihood of exploitation depends on various factors, including the presence of redirect or forward functionalities within the application, the visibility of user-controlled input, and the awareness of potential attackers. However, given the prevalence of phishing attacks and the ease of exploitation of Invalidated Redirects and Forwards vulnerabilities, the risk associated with this vulnerability is considerable if not adequately addressed.

Steps to Reproduce:

  1. Identify endpoints or functionalities within the application that perform redirects or forwards based on user-controlled input.
  2. Craft malicious URLs containing manipulated redirect or forward parameters, such as absolute or relative URLs pointing to external or unauthorized destinations.
  3. Submit the crafted URLs to the vulnerable endpoints and observe the application's behavior.
  4. Verify if the application performs the redirect or forward operation as intended, without proper validation of the destination URL, potentially leading to redirection to malicious or unauthorized resources.

Recommendations for Developers:

  1. Static Destination Validation: Implement static destination validation to ensure that redirect and forward URLs are restricted to authorized destinations within the application's domain. Validate redirect URLs against a whitelist of trusted destinations to prevent redirection to external or untrusted resources.
  2. Dynamic Destination Mapping: If dynamic redirection or forwarding is necessary, implement dynamic destination mapping to validate and sanitize user-controlled input before performing the redirection. Use a safe redirect mechanism that ensures the integrity and security of the redirect process.


Addressing the Invalidated Redirects and Forwards vulnerability is essential to protect users from phishing attacks, unauthorized access, and other security risks associated with malicious redirection. By implementing static destination validation and dynamic destination mapping mechanisms, we can mitigate the risks associated with Invalidated Redirects and Forwards and enhance the overall security posture of our application.