Top 100 Linux Commands.

Welcome to our latest post at, where we delve into the world of Linux and introduce you to the top 100 Linux commands that every enthusiast, professional, or beginner should know. Whether you're managing servers, navigating through files, or performing system administration tasks, mastering these commands will enhance your productivity and deepen your understanding of Linux's powerful capabilities.

What is Linux?

Linux is an open-source, Unix-like operating system that powers everything from desktops to servers and mobile devices. It's known for its stability, security, and flexibility, making it a popular choice for developers, system administrators, and tech enthusiasts.

Why Learn Linux Commands?

Navigating Linux through its command line interface can be daunting at first, but it offers unparalleled control and efficiency for managing your system. Learning these commands not only boosts your skill set but also prepares you for advanced tasks and potential career opportunities in tech.

Top 100 Linux Commands with Descriptions

File and Directory Management

ls - List directory contents

cd - Change directory

pwd - Print working directory

mkdir - Make directories

rmdir - Remove directories

rm - Remove files or directories

cp - Copy files and directories

mv - Move or rename files and directories

touch - Change file timestamps or create empty files

ln - Create links between files

find - Search for files in a directory hierarchy

locate - Find files by name

du - Estimate file space usage

df - Report file system disk space usage

chmod - Change file mode bits

chown - Change file owner and group

stat - Display file or file system status

tar - Tape archiving utility

gzip - Compress or expand files

bzip2 - A block-sorting file compressor

System Management

top - Display Linux processes

ps - Report a snapshot of current processes

kill - Send a signal to a process

systemctl - Control the systemd system and service manager

free - Display amount of free and used memory in the system

uptime - Tell how long the system has been running

hostname - Show or set the system's host name

uname - Print system information

who - Show who is logged on

last - Show listing of last logged in users

useradd - Create a new user or update default new user information

userdel - Delete a user account and related files

groupadd - Create a new group

groupdel - Delete a group

passwd - Update user's authentication tokens

change - Change user password expiry information

Network Commands

ifconfig - Configure a network interface

ip - Show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels

ping - Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts

netstat - Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships

ss - Another utility to investigate sockets

traceroute - Print the route packets take to network host

dig - DNS lookup utility

nslookup - Query Internet name servers interactively

wget - The non-interactive network downloader

curl - Transfer data from or to a server

scp - Secure copy (remote file copy program)

rsync - A fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

ftp - Internet file transfer program

ssh - OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program)

Package Management

apt-get - APT package handling utility — command-line interface

dpkg - Package manager for Debian

yum - Command line interface for RPM package manager

rpm - RPM package manager

zypper - Command line interface for the ZYpp package manager (openSUSE)

File Viewing and Editing

cat - Concatenate files and print on the standard output

less - Opposite of more

more - File perusal filter for crt viewing

nano - Simple text editor

vi - Text editor

grep - Print lines matching a pattern

awk - Pattern-directed scanning and processing language

sed - Stream editor for filtering and transforming text

diff - Compare files line by line

head - Output the first part of files

tail - Output the last part of files

sort - Sort lines of text files

cut - Remove sections from each line of files

wc - Print newline, word, and byte counts for each file

Process Management

bg - Move jobs to the background

fg - Move jobs to the foreground

jobs - List active jobs

nohup - Run a command immune to hangups

nice - Run a program with modified scheduling priority

renice - Alter priority of running processes

Disk Usage

fdisk - Manipulate disk partition table

mkfs - Build a Linux filesystem

mount - Mount a filesystem

umount - Unmount file systems

fsck - Check and repair a Linux filesystem

lsof - List open files

System Monitoring and Logging

dmesg - Print or control the kernel ring buffer

iostat - Report Central Processing Unit (CPU) statistics and input/output statistics for devices and partitions

vmstat - Report virtual memory statistics

lscpu - Display information about the CPU architecture

journalctl - Query or display system log messages from the journal

Networking Tools

iptables - Administration tool for IPv4/IPv6 packet filtering and NAT

firewall-cmd - Command line client for firewalld

route - Show / manipulate the IP routing table

hostnamectl - Control the system hostname

nmap - Network exploration tool and security / port scanner

Compression and Archiving

tar - An archiving utility

gzip - Compress or expand files

bzip2 - A block-sorting file compressor

zip - Package and compress (archive) files

unzip - List, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive

Searching and Sorting

find - Search for files in a directory hierarchy

locate - Find files by name

sort - Sort lines of text files

uniq - Report or omit repeated line

Tips for Mastering Linux Commands

  • Practice Regularly: The more you use these commands, the more familiar they'll become.
  • Use the man Command: Get detailed information about any command by typing man followed by the command name.
  • Experiment: Don't be afraid to try out commands in a safe environment to see what they do.
  • Join the Community: Engage with Linux forums and communities to learn from experienced users.


Understanding and utilizing these top 100 Linux commands will significantly enhance your interaction with Linux, making you more proficient and confident in handling various tasks. Remember, the key to mastery is consistent practice and continuous learning.

Author: RB